Substrate materials: Crystal growth and wafer preparation, epitaxial growth technique, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Doping techniques: Diffusion and ion implantation. Growth and deposition of dielectric layers: Thermal oxidation, CVD, plasma CVD, sputtering and silicon-nitride growth. Etching: Wet chemical etching, silicon and GaAs etching, anisotropic etching, selective etching, dry physical etching, ion beam etching sputtering and etching and reactive ion etching. Cleaning: Surface cleaning, organic cleaning and RCA cleaning. Lithography: Photoreactive materials, pattern generation, pattern transfer and metallization. Discrete device fabrication: Diode, transistor, resistor and capacitor. Integrated circuit fabrication: Isolation-pn junction isolation, mesa isolation and oxide isolation. BJT based microcircuits, p-channel and n-channel MOSFETs, complimentary MOSFETs and silicon on insulator devices. Testing, bonding and packaging.