Synchronous Generators: excitation systems, equivalent circuit, vector diagrams at different loads, factors affecting voltage regulation, synchronous impedance, synchronous impedance method of predicting voltage regulation and its limitations. Parallel operation: Necessary conditions, synchronizing and circulating current and vector diagram. Synchronous motors: Operation, effect of loading under different excitation conditions, effect of changing excitations, V-curves and starting. DC generator: types, no-load voltage characteristics, build-up of a self-excited shunt generator, critical field resistance, load-voltage characteristics, effect of speed on noload and load characteristics and voltage regulation. DC motors: Torque, counter emf, speed, torque-speed characteristics, starting and speed regulation. Introduction to wind turbine generators construction and basic characteristics of solar cells.